Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be used to produce heat or electricity. Although burning biomass releases carbon dioxide (CO2), which is a greenhouse gas, it is renewable. This is because the carbon released through burning can be offset by the carbon sequestered in new growth. This makes it a carbon-neutral fuel source.

It can be used to generate electricity through direct combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, and anaerobic digestion. Biomass power plants typically use wood waste or crop residues as fuel. Some plants may also use animal manure as fuel.

Where is Biomass Used?

Its use is most prominent in developing countries, where it accounts for about 60% of the total renewable energy supply. In developed countries, its share is much smaller at around 10%.

Biomass in Brazil

In Brazil, biomass provides about 85% of the country’s renewable energy needs.

rainforest in brazil
Rainforest (Photo: Unsplash)


In China, related power plants generate about 12% of the country’s electricity.

United States

The United States is a major producer and user of biomass energy. Such power plants in the United States generate about 5% of the country’s electricity.

How is Biomass Converted into Energy?

There are several ways to convert biomass into energy. The most common method is direct combustion, where it is burned to produce heat, which is then used to generate electricity.


Another common method is gasification, where the biomass is converted into a combustible gas known as syngas. The syngas can be used to generate electricity or it can be burned to produce heat.


Pyrolysis is a process that involves heating it in the absence of oxygen. This produces a combustible gas known as pyrolysis gas, which can be used to generate electricity.

Anaerobic Digestion

Anaerobic digestion is a process that breaks it down in the absence of oxygen. This process produces methane, which can be used to generate electricity or it can be burned to produce heat.

Benefits of Biomass

Biomass is a renewable energy source that can help to displace fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. When used as a fuel for power generation, it can also help to improve air quality by displacing coal-fired power plants. In addition, the use of biomass can create jobs and spur economic development in rural communities.


Disadvantages include the potential for land-use change and the release of greenhouse gases. When it is burned, it releases CO2. If the biomass is sourced from trees that have been cut down, then this can lead to deforestation. In addition, if the biomass is not sustainably managed, it can lead to soil erosion and degradation.

organic matter for biomass
Organic Matter (Photo: Unsplash)

It can be expensive to produce. The cost of growing and harvesting necessary crops can be high. Transporting it can also be costly as it is often bulky and heavy..

Carbon Offsets

A number of projects producing and burning biomass for energy offer carbon offsets and carbon credits. These credits can be used to offset emissions from other sources, such as fossil fuel-fired power plants.

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