Climate change in India refers to the changing climate of India that is caused by emissions of greenhouse gases. The country’s average temperature is expected to rise by 4.4 degree Celsius by the end of the year 2100. However, in the case of India, these vulnerabilities come with a unique potential for change. Temperatures in India have risen by 0.7 °C (1.3 °F) between 1901 and 2018, thereby changing the climate in India. In May 2022 severe heatwave was recorded in Pakistan and India. The temperature reached 51°C. Climate change makes such heatwaves 100 times more likely.
Affects of Climate Change in India
Climate change is already making India’s weather more extreme. There have been more floods and droughts in recent years, and they are getting worse. Heatwaves are becoming more frequent and more intense. The monsoon, which is vital for agriculture, is becoming less reliable. All of this is affecting the lives and livelihoods of millions of people in India.
The good news is that India is taking action on climate change. The country has pledged to reduce its emissions by 33-35% below 2005 levels by 2030. It has also pledged to install 175 gigawatts (GW) of renewable energy by 2022, of which 100 GW will be solar, 60 GW will be wind, 10 GW will be biomass and 5 GW will be small hydro. These are ambitious targets, but if met they would put India on track to meet its commitments under the Paris Agreement.
The Paris Agreement is an international agreement on climate change, adopted by 196 Parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December 2015. The Agreement’s long-term goal is to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to limit the increase to 1.5°C, recognizing that this would significantly reduce risks and impacts of climate change. India has committed itself to the goals of the Paris Agreement.
Under the Paris Agreement, each country must put forward its own plans for reducing emissions. These are called Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). India’s NDC includes a commitment to reduce emissions by 33-35% below 2005 levels by 2030. This is an ambitious target, but it is achievable if India takes the right actions.
Monsoons in India
The monsoon is a vital part of India’s climate. It brings much-needed rains to the country, which are essential for agriculture. The monsoon is becoming less reliable due to climate change. This is affecting the lives and livelihoods of millions of people who depend on it. In recent years however, monsoons have caused damage worth billions of dollars.
Floods and Droughts
Floods and droughts are becoming more frequent and more intense due to climate change. To cope with the effects of climate change, India is working to improve its monsoon forecast system. It is also investing in irrigation and water storage, so that farmers can still grow crops even if the rains fail.
Heatwaves are becoming more frequent and more intense in India due to climate change. In May 2016, a heatwave struck India, causing temperatures to soar to over 50°C in some parts of the country. This led to the deaths of more than 2,000 people. To protect people from heatwaves, India is working to improve its early warning system. It is also distributing heatwave-resistant tents and coolers to vulnerable communities.
Wildfires in India
Wildfires are a growing problem in India due to climate change. In 2019, forest fires destroyed over 1.6 million hectares of forest in India. This is an area the size of Switzerland. To protect forests from wildfires, India is working to improve its fire-fighting capabilities. It is also investing in planting more trees.
Air Quality in India
Air pollution is a major health problem in India. According to the World Health Organization, it is the world’s most polluted country. This is having a serious impact on the health of the people of India. The main sources of air pollution in India are road transport, power plants, industry, agriculture and domestic heating and cooking. In order to improve air quality, the government of India has introduced a number of measures, including the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP). This is a five-year action plan to reduce air pollution in 102 cities. The NCAP includes measures to improve monitoring of air pollution, control emissions from vehicles and industry, and promote the use of cleaner fuels.
Climate Change in Delhi
In Delhi, air pollution is a major problem. The city’s air quality is often worse than the national average. This is due to a number of factors, including the city’s high population density, its location in a basin surrounded by mountains, and the burning of crop residue in nearby farmlands.
The government of Delhi has taken a number of measures to improve air quality, including the odd-even scheme, which restricts the use of private vehicles on certain days of the week. The government has also introduced a number of measures to control emissions from industry and power plants.
Climate Change in Mumbai
Mumbai is India’s most populous city, with a population of over 20 million. The city is located on the coast, and its climate is affected by the Arabian Sea. Mumbai experiences two main seasons – the wet season (June to September) and the dry season (October to May). The city’s average rainfall is 2,000 mm (79 inches).
Mumbai is vulnerable to sea level rise, as well as to flooding during the wet season. This is due to the city’s low-lying coastal location, as well as its large number of slums, which are often located in flood-prone areas. The government of Mumbai has taken a number of measures to address the problem of climate change, including the development of a coastal road, the construction of seawalls, and the planting of mangroves.
Climate Change in Bangalore
In Bangalore, the main impacts of climate change are expected to be water shortages and heatwaves. The city is located in the state of Karnataka, which is already facing a water crisis. In order to address this, the government of Karnataka has introduced a number of measures, including the construction of check dams and the promotion of rainwater harvesting.
The state government has also launched a campaign to raise awareness about the need to conserve water. This includes the distribution of pamphlets and posters, as well as the airing of public service announcements on television and radio.
Climate Change in Chennai
Chennai is a coastal city located in southeastern India. The city experiences two main seasons – the wet season (October to December) and the dry season (January to September).
Chennai is vulnerable to sea level rise and to flooding during the wet season. This is due to the city’s low-lying coastal location, as well as its large number of slums, which are often located in flood-prone areas. The government of Chennai has taken a number of measures to address the problem of climate change, including the construction of seawalls and the planting of mangroves.
Carbon credits or carbon offsets are a crucial tool in the fight against climate change. They are a way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, by offsetting them with activities that remove or store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
In India, there are a number of carbon credit schemes that have been set up in order to encourage businesses to reduce their emissions. These include the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which allows businesses to offset their emissions by investing in clean energy projects in developing countries, and the Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme, which encourages businesses to improve their energy efficiency.
In addition to these schemes, the government of India has also introduced a number of tax incentives for businesses that invest in carbon credits. These include income tax deductions, as well as exemptions from customs duty and excise duty. All of these measures have been introduced in an effort to encourage businesses to reduce their emissions and help combat climate change.
Renewable energy is crucial in the fight against climate change. It is a clean and sustainable source of energy that does not emit greenhouse gases. In India, the government has set a target of installing 175 gigawatts (GW) of renewable energy by the year 2022. This includes 100 GW of solar power, 60 GW of wind power, 10 GW of biomass power, and 5 GW of small hydro power.
The government has also introduced a number of policies to promote the use of renewable energy. These include the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, which aims to increase the use of solar power in India, and the National Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy, which promotes the use of both wind and solar power.